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Informative Hypotheses

Tutorial papers

The papers listed here can serve as tutorials for researchers who want to learn about the use of informative hypotheses evaluation without diving too deep in all technical details. In most of these papers illustrative data, mainly from the social or behavioural sciences, play an important role.


  • Hoijtink, H., Mulder, J., van Lissa, C., & Gu, X. (Accepted/In press). A tutorial on testing hypotheses using the Bayes factor. Psychological Methodsdoi: 10.1037/met0000201


  • Vanbrabant, L., Van de Schoot, R., Van Loey, N., & Rosseel, Y. (2017). A General Procedure for Testing Inequality Constrained Hypotheses in SEM. Methodology, 13(2), doi: 10.1027/1614-2241/a000123
  • Zondervan-Zwijnenburg, M. A. J., Van de Schoot, R., Johnson, A. R. (2017). Computing complexity for the Bayes Factor in inequality constrained hypotheses. doi: 10.17605/OSF.IO/5YT3J


  • Braeken, J., Mulder, J., & Wood, S. (2015). Relative effects at work: Bayes factors for order hypotheses. Journal of Management, 41, 511-573. doi:10.1177/0149206314525206

  • Konijn, E.A., Van de Schoot, R., Winter, S.D., & Ferguson, C.J. (2015). Possible solution to publication bias through Bayesian statistics, including proper null hypothesis testing. Communication Methods and Measures, 9(4), 280-302. doi: 10.1080/19312458.2015.1096332

  • Vanbrabant, L., Van de Schoot, R., & Rosseel, Y. (2015). Constrained statistical inference: Sample-size tables for ANOVA and regression. Frontiers in Psychology, 5(1565), 1-8. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.01565 (open access)


  • Van de Schoot, R., & Meeus W. (2014). Various positions on testing Inequality constrained hypotheses for LTA results. [Link] (open access)


  • Van de Schoot, R., Verhoeven, M., & Hoijtink, H. (2013). Bayesian evaluation of informative hypotheses in SEM using Mplus: A black bear story. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 10, 81-98. doi: 10.1080/17405629.2012.732719[Link]


  • Baayen, C., Klugkist, I., Mechsner, F. (2012). A test of order constrained hypotheses for circular data with applications to human movement science. Journal of Motor Behavior, 44, 351-363 doi: 10.1080/00222895.2012.709549[Link]
  • Béland, S., Klugkist, I., Raîche, G., Magis, D. (2012). A short introduction into Bayesian evaluation of informative hypotheses as an alternative to exploratory comparisons of multiple group means. Tutorials in Quantitative Methods for Psychology, 8, 122-126. [Link]
  • Kluytmans, A., Van de Schoot, R., Mulder, J., & Hoijtink, H. (2012). Illustrating Bayesian evaluation of informative hypotheses for regression models. Frontiers in Psychology, 3(2). doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00002 (open access)[Link]


  • Finch, W. H., & Bronk, K. C. (2011). Conducting confirmatory latent class analysis using Mplus. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 18, 132-151. doi: 10.1080/10705511.2011.532732.
  • Klugkist, I., Van wesel, F., Bullens, J. (2011). Do we know what we test and do we test what we want to know? International Journal of Behavioral Development, 35, 550-560. doi: 10.1177/0165025411425873[Link]
  • Van de Schoot, R., Mulder, J., Hoijtink, H., van Aken, M.A.G. , Dubas, J.S., de Castro, B. O., Meeus, W. & Romeijn, J.-W. (2011). An Introduction to Bayesian model selection for evaluating informative hypotheses. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 8 (6), 713–729. doi:10.1080/17405629.2011.621799 (open access)[File]
  • Van de Schoot, R., & Strohmeier, D. (2011). Testing informative hypotheses in SEM increases power: An illustration contrasting classical hypothesis testing with a parametric bootstrap approach. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 35, 180-190. doi: 10.1177/0165025410397432[Link]
  • Van de Schoot, R., Hoijtink, H., & Romeijn, J-W (2011). Moving beyond traditional null hypothesis testing: Evaluating expectations directly. Frontiers in Quantitative Psychology and Measurement, 2:24. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2011.00024 (open access)[Link]
  • Van de Schoot, R., Hoijtink, H., Mulder, J., Van Aken, M. A. G., Orobio de Castro, B., Meeus, W. & Romeijn, J.-W. (2011). Evaluating expectations about negative emotional states of aggressive boys using Bayesian model selection. Developmental Psychology, 47, 203-212. doi: 10.1037/a0020957
  • Van de Schoot, R. (2011). Rechtstreeks verwachtingen evalueren of de nul hypothese toetsen? Stator, 2,22-24. doi: 10.2139/ssrn.1919023 (open access)


  • Van de Schoot, R., Hoijtink, H. & Doosje, S. (2009). Rechtstreeks verwachtingen evalueren of de nul hypothese toetsen? Nul hypothese toetsing versus Bayesiaanse model selectie. [Directly evaluating expectations or testing the null hypothesis: Null hypothesis testing versus Bayesian model selection]. De Psycholoog 4, 196-203[Link] (open access)


  • Romeijn, J. W. & Van de Schoot, R. (2008). A philosopher’s view on Bayesian evaluation of informative hypotheses. In H. Hoijtink, I. Klugkist, & P. Boelen (ed.). Bayesian evaluation of informative hypotheses (pp. 329-358). New-York: Springer. [Link] (open access)
  • Van de Schoot, R., & Hoijtink, H. (2008). Tutorial for inequality constrained latent class modeling (LCM version 1.0). [Link] (open access)